Trần Hoàng Blog

Cả Việt Nam và Kampuchea đều quay tròn trong quỹ đạo của Trung Quốc

Posted by hoangtran204 trên 25/04/2012

Lời tựa của Trần Hoàng: Bài báo dưới đây cho thấy vai trò kinh tế, chính trị của Trung Quốc ở Kampuchea ngày càng lớn.  Vào năm 2007, TQ cũng đã hoàn tất việc đầu tư 500 triệu Mỹ kim vào hải cảng Sihanoukville. Có hơn 3000 doanh nghiệp Trung Quốc đang hoạt động ở Kampuchea. Và một số lượng dân TQ di cư qua sống ở Kampuchea trong 2 thập niên qua. Một số ghi chép từ 2007 đến nay post dưới đây (sẽ cập nhật nguồn sau).

Đường cao tốc chạy từ Hải cảng Sihanoukville  lên phía bắc hướng tới  biên giới Kampuchea và Lào. Nhiều năm qua, Trung Quốc cũng đã và đang cố gắng khai thông đường thủy và đường bộ chạy từ biên giới Trung Quốc và Lào để nối vào xa lộ phía nam của Kampuchea.  Như vậy, vùng đất phía tây của TQ, nằm phía bắc của Lào, rất kém phát triển của TQ,  giờ đây có thể đi thẳng xuống phía nam, và thông thương ra cảng Sihanoukville. (xem bản đồ)

Khi vai trò chính trị và kinh tế của TQ ảnh hưởng mạnh mẻ ở Kampuchea, thì phía tây của Việt Nam lộ ra một lổ hổng chiến lược rất lớn.  Phía Biển Đông thì hải quân TQ tuần tra đường lưỡi bò.

Việt Nam tiếp tục thâm thủng mậu dịch với Trung Quốc gần 20 tỷ USD mỗi năm.  Hàng hóa, sản phẩm, máy móc của TQ ngày đêm chạy vào VN qua biên giới Việt Trung và  cảng Hải Phòng. Các công ty VN  nhập khẩu hàng hóa từ TQ về VN đều có lời rất lớn. Người dân thường chắc chắn không thể nào xin được giấy tờ  để nhập hàng hóa TQ vào VN với số lượng gần 2 tỷ đô la mỗi tháng, chưa kể là phải chi đẹp cho các nút chặn của hải quan VN, quản lý thị trường…Chỉ có các cán bộ cao cấp và em út giữ độc quyền làm ăn trong lãnh vực này vì lời rất lớn.  Việt nam chỉ bán qua TQ nguyên liệu và khoáng sản như than đá, quặng sắt, và một ít nông sản, trái cây…tổng cộng hơn 1 tỷ USD.

Nguồn gốc của lạm phát, đồng tiền mất giá, vật giá leo thang trong hơn 30 năm qua là tập hợp của 4-5 hoạt động sau đây của các đỉnh cao trí tuệ của loài người: 1.  hàng năm chính phủ in tiền để chi tiêu vì thâm thủng ngân sách, trả lương cho 6 triệu cán bộ đảng viên và công chức (chi nhiều hơn thu); 2.  chính phủ còn tung tiền đồng VN ra mua lại 9-10 tỷ đô la của Việt kiều gởi về cho gia đình; cụ thể  đã tung ra 300.000 tỷ đồng vào tháng 8/2011 và nhờ các ngân hàng thu mua đô la và vàng; 3. hàng năm chính phủ còn tung tiền ra cứu các tập đoàn làm ăn thua lỗ, 100 tổng công ty và tập đoàn nhà nước hiện nay đang nợ hơn 1 triệu 200 ngàn tỷ đồng (57 tỷ đô la); 4.  sự thâm thủng mậu dịch (nhập khẩu hàng hóa nhiều hơn xuất khẩu) với Trung Quốc đã lên tới mức 20 tỷ đô la hàng năm. Kết quả, đồngtiền VN có giá trị kém nhất thế giới, chỉ có giá trị hơn tiền của Somali. (nguồn: đã post đâu đó trong blog này, sẽ cập nhật tại đây trong 24 giờ nữa).

Ngoài ra, theo loạt 4 bài báo post dưới bài này, TQ đang là chủ đầu tư 100% của “Việt Nam cho Trung Quốc thuê đất trồng rừng với giá 10 tô phở một mẫu

“…tính đến tháng 8.2010, tổng diện tích đất lâm nghiệp cho nhà đầu tư nước ngoài thuê để trồng rừng theo hình thức 100% vốn nước ngoài được cấp giấy chứng nhận đầu tư là 288.974 ha “

Trong số các công ty nước ngoài đã được phép đầu tư, chỉ riêng InnovGreen (Hong Kong, đã thuộc về Trung Quốc vào năm 1999) đã thuê tới 274.848 ha, chiếm 87% diện tích đất thuê.“

1ha = 1 mẫu = 10.000 mét vuông

Báo vneconomy viết: “diện tích đã được cấp cho các nhà đầu tư nước ngoài thuê 50 năm là 15.664 ha

“”Bộ trưởng Phúc cũng cho rằng, cấp phép cho một doanh nghiệp Đài Loan gần 200.000 ha, tức là 2.000 km2 là một con số quá lớn.”

Đảng và nhà nước phát triển kinh tế bằng cách bán tài nguyên khoáng sản dầu khí, quặng sắt, quặng titan, than đá, wolfram, tungsten,…suốt hơn 20 năm qua, đất đai thì chia năm xẻ bảy cho Nhật (Tokyu ở Bình Dương), Đài Loan, Ả Rập (60% tỉnh Phú Yên, hợp đồng thuê đất lên 210 năm), Singapore (Sơn Tịnh, Quãng Ngãi) thuê làm đặc khu kinh tế ở phía Nam. 18 tỉnh ngoài miền bắc thì cho Trung Quốc thuê 274.848 hecta đất, có những vùng đất cho thuê 50 năm, 99 năm (ở Móng Cái).  (nguồn của các sự kiện ở các bài báo post trên blog này)

THÔNG TẤN XÃ VIỆTNAM

CAMPUCHIA QUAY TRÒN TRONG QUỸ ĐẠO CỦATRUNG QUỐC

Tài liệu tham khảo đặc biệt

Thứ ba, ngày 24/4/2012

TTXVN (Angiê 21/4)

Trên đường từ Campuchia trở về sau khi tham dự cuộc họp lần thứ tư của nhóm BRICS, ngày 29/3, Tổng bí thư Đảng cộng sản Trung Quốc, Hồ Cẩm Đào, dừng chân ở Phnôm Pênh mấy ngày, trước thềm hội nghị thượng đỉnh ASEAN khai mạc ngày 3/4.

Chuyến thăm của Chủ tịch Trung Quốc kết thúc bằng một bản thông cáo chung dài nói về việc tăng cường hợp tác kinh tế và mở rộng mối quan hệ về an ninh (đấu tranh chống khủng bố, buôn người và ma túy), mở rộng hợp tác quân sự trên mọi khía cạnh và soạn thảo bộ Quy tắc ứng xử của các bên ở biển Đông.

Theo ông Jean-Paul Yacine, nhà phân tích chính trị của tạp chí “Tin Trung Hoa”, chặng dừng chân của Hồ Cẩm Đào tại Campuchia đã làm dấy lên các cuộc tranh luận về sức nặng ngày càng tăng của Trung Quốc ở vương quốc chùa tháp này.

Chuyến thăm của Chủ tịch Trung Quốc Hồ Cẩm Đào, vào hôm trước khi diễn ra hội nghị thượng đỉnh ASEAN, gây ra những ý kiến khác nhau trong giới bình luận cũng như ở Philippin, nước nghi ngờ Sự “công minh” của nước chủ nhà vốn bị cáo buộc là “chư hầu” của Trung Quốc.

Ngày 31/3, hãng Reuters, công bố một văn bản cho biết Hồ cẩm Đào có thể đề nghị Thủ tướng Campuchia Hun Sen không tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho các cuộc tranh luận giữa các nước thành viên ASEAN về biển Đông, một vấn đề gây ra bao tranh cãi giữa Bắc Kinh và nhiều nước thành viên, trong đó có Philippin và Việt Nam.

Ngày 2/4, tờ nhật báo tiếng Anh “Cambodge Daily” phát đi một bài bình luận của tiến sĩ Lao Mong Hay. Là người được đào tạo tại Anh và thường phê phán sự xích lại gần Trung Quốc, nước mà ông cho là đóng vai trò quyết định trong sự phát triển mạnh mẽ của Khơme Đỏ, Lao Mong Hay nói rằng “Hội nghị cấp cao ASEAN có thể sẽ bị Trung Quốc sử dụng để, thông qua tiếng nói của Campuchia, mở rộng lợi ích địa chiến lược của mình”.

Tác giả bài báo còn nói thêm rằng: “Một số nước ASEAN không còn tin Campuchia có khả năng giữ được thái độ trung lập trong vai trò chủ tịch khi nhiều nước có ý định bày tỏ nỗi lo ngại của mình về ý đồ của Trung Quốc”.

Văn bản do hãng Reuters phát ra và những lời bình luận lại trái ngược với những tuyên bố chính thức, trong khi tại một cuộc họp báo, Thủ tướng Campuchia Hun Sen phê phán gay gắt tiến sĩ Lao Mong Hay và tờ “Cambodge Daily”, đồng thời phủ nhận mọi sự can thiệp của Trung Quốc.

Ngoài cuộc tranh luận, những cuộc trao đổi liên quan đến mối nghi ngờ và những điều xúc phạm giữa các nhà báo, nhà quan sát và Chính quyền Phnôm Pênh được tiếp nối bằng một số tuyên bố của Ngoại trưởng Philippin. Ông Alver Del Rosario, với lời lẽ mạnh mẽ phê phán ý đồ của Trung Quốc, ngay tại phiên khai mạc, nhấn mạnh để các nước thành viên thông qua, mà không có sự tham gia của Trung Quốc, lập trường chung về một Bộ quy tắc ứng xử vốn rất khó có khả năng được thông qua nhưng được coi như một bộ luật ở biển Đông. Ông nói: “Chúng ta hy vọng rằng thương lượng sẽ thực sự tiến triển, không những về hình thức mà cả về nội dung.”

Cuối cùng, như để thúc đẩy thêm bước khởi đầu của tiến trình phân hóa vốn là biểu hiện của sự tương phản giữa tình hình chính sách đối nội của các nước thành viên dưới chiếc bóng của Trung Quốc, ngày 3/4, Inđônêxia và Philippin đã tẩy chay phiên họp đầu tiên về nhân quyền. Các nước này định qua đó phản đối việc chính phủ nhiều nước ASEAN kiểm soát các tổ chức phi chính phủ và xã hội dân sự vì muốn làm dịu một vài trong số các vấn đề nghiêm trọng nhất mà dân chúng trong vùng phải gánh chịu.

Về mặt này, các tổ chức phi chính phủ do Chính quyền Phnôm Pênh lựa chọn lại tránh nói đến các vụ vi phạm nhân quyền ở Campuchia trong các vụ chuyển nhượng đất cho các tổ hợp chế biến lương thực, trong đó có nhiều tổ hợp của Trung Quốc. Các tổ chức khác có thái độ phê phán mạnh hơn và cứng đầu hơn, lại hoàn toàn bị cấm tham đự hội nghị.

Các tổ hp lớn của Trung Quốc trở lại. Liên minh Trung Quốc- Khơme mi

Sự xích lại gần nhau giữa Phnôm Pênh và Bắc Kinh được khởi đầu từ năm 1992 trong bối cảnh hoàn toàn khác với những năm bảo hộ, từ thời Sihanouk, dưới thời Lon Nol, rồi trong thời kỳ Khơme Đỏ. Từ những năm 1990 người Trung Quốc chiếm giữ vị thế ngày càng có nhiều ảnh hưởng ở Campuchia, sau khi bị Pháp khoanh lại trong vai trò thương nhân, rồi bị Sihanouk kiềm chế, bị loại trừ dưới thời Sirik Matak, bị những kẻ Pol Pot quấy nhiễu và tàn sát (khoảng 200.000 người chết theo chuyên gia về Khơme Đỏ Steve Heder) vì bị coi là “dân thành thị tham nhũng” cần phải tiêu diệt và cải huấn, và cuối cùng bị Việt Nam loại hẳn ra ngoài cuộc.

Sau 11 năm Việt Nam có mặt về quân sự ở Campuchia, hiệp định Pari năm 1991 đã làm thay đổi tình thế. Việc “giải quyết tổng thể vấn đề Campuchia” chấm dứt một thời kỳ được đánh dấu bởi cuộc kháng chiến âm ỉ chống kẻ chiếm đóng, đi đâu là các đơn vị Khơme Đỏ còn sót lại được Trung Quốc và cộng đồng quốc tế – trong đó có cả Mỹ và các nước châu Âu – cung cấp vũ khí dưới chiêu bài viện trợ cho ba phái chống Việt Nam, trong đó thực tế chỉ có Khơme Đỏ hoạt động có hiệu quả trên lãnh thổ Campuchia.

Vai trò của Đảng Nhân dân Campuchia không ngừng được tăng cường để hướng dấn tới độc quyền về chính trị sau một thời kỳ dân chủ ngắn ngủi bắt đầu bằng cuộc bầu cử do Liên hợp quốc tổ chức vào năm 1993. Ngay từ năm 1991, chế độ Phnôm Pênh tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho xã hội Trung Quốc hồi sinh như trước thời kỳ bảo hộ, xoay quanh các hội đoàn tương ứng với xuất xứ địa lý của các cộng đồng.

Trong khi mối quan hệ giữa Đảng Nhân dân Campuchia và Đảng Cộng sản Trung Quốc phát triển sâu rộng hơn mối quan hệ truyền thống được thiết lập trong những năm 1970 bởi Chu Ân Lai với Hoàng gia Campuchia hiện nay bị Hun Sen loại ra ngoài cuộc và chỉ có vái trò thứ yếu, lợi ích chung của Đảng Cộng sản Trung Quốc và Đảng Nhân dân Campuchia – vốn có mối liên hệ trực tiếp với nhau – tăng gấp đôi. Cả hai đảng quả thực đều muốn làm cho nhau quên đi mối quan hệ với chế độ Khơme Đỏ để tập trung vào phát triển kinh tế.

Về khía cạnh này, sự phản đối gay gắt của Thủ tướng Hun Sen đối với mọi hành động Lên án những kẻ tình nghi mới tại tòa án lưỡng viện Phnôm Pênh hiện đang, xét xử các lãnh đạo cao nhất của chế độ Pol Pot, hoàn toàn phù hợp với ý muốn của ban lãnh đạo Trung Quốc. Nước Trung Quốc hiện đại muốn sang trang mới sau khi hỗ trợ bền bỉ và vô điều kiện những kẻ giết người cực đoan dưới chế độ Campuchia dân chủ, kể cả vào những thời điểm tệ hại nhất với các cuộc tàn sát hàng loạt trong thời kỳ 1975-1978.

Từ đó, hợp tác kinh tế với Trung Quốc không ngừng được mở rộng cùng với việc tăng cường quyền lực của Đảng Nhân dân nhờ sự hỗ trợ của một mạng lưới doanh nhân Trung Quốc và Trung Quốc gốc Khơme gắn bó chặt chẽ với giới đầu nậu nắm quyền.

Hoạt động không gì cưỡng lại đưc của Trung Quốc

Trong Nhà nước pháp quvền ờ Campuchia, không còn một thể chế mang nhãn hiệu dân chủ nào còn độc lập (bộ máy tư pháp, Hội đồng thẩm phán cấp cao, quyền lập pháp, ủy ban bầu cử đều phải tuân lệnh).

Nhà nước pháp quyền cũng là nơi những tiếng nói phê phán thuộc xã hội dân sự dần dần bị kiểm soát theo cách khiến người ta nhớ lại sự ưu tiên tối cao mà Đảng cộng sản Trung Quốc dành cho yêu cầu ổn định chính trị. Sự suy yếu dần dần của Nhà nước pháp quyền tạo ra một khuôn khổ trong đó, Bắc Kinh như con cá gặp nước, dần dần biến đất nước này thành một cực phát triển, giống như Mianma, trong khuôn khổ chiến lược phát triển các tỉnh phía Nam và Tây- Nam của Trung Quốc.

Giống như Hoàng thân Sihanouk đã làm vào năm 1965, Đảng Nhân dân của Hun Sen ngả hẳn về phía Trung Quốc. Lần này, hệ thống quyền lực của Campuchia, dưới vỏ bọc dân chủ, trở thành một phiên bản của hệ thống Trung Quốc, bị điều khiển bởi các mạng lưới làm ăn đầy quyền lực vừa là động lực của tăng trưởng vừa là thành trì bảo vệ lợi ích của gia đình và phe nhóm.

Từ năm 2004, Trung Quốc là nhà đầu tư hàng đầu vào Campuchia. Theo Tân Hoa Xã, từ năm 1994 đến năm 2011, tổng vốn đầu tư của Trung Quốc cộng lại lên tới 8,8 tỷ USD, chiếm 30% Tổng sản phẩm quốc nội của Campuchia.

Đầu tư của Trung Quốc vào nước này tăng rất nhanh, chỉ riêng trong năm 2011 tăng 72% (theo con số chính thức của Campuchia). Hiện nay, đầu tư của Trung Quốc cao gấp hai lần so với đầu tư vào Bắc Triều Tiên hay vào Liên minh châu Âu (nơi Trung Quốc là nhà đầu tư thứ ba với 3,6 tỷ USD), cao hơn hẳn đầu tư của Mỹ và Nhật Bản (ít hơn khoảng 30 và 60 lần so với của Trung Quốc).

Đầu tư của Trung Quốc vào Campuchia được thực hiện bằng nhiều cách. Với các khoản cho vay với lãi suất thấp, đầu tư của Trung Quốc không những là sự hỗ trợ phát triển trong các lĩnh vực hạ tầng, vận tải, năng lượng, viễn thông, bảo vệ nguồn nước, mà còn là sự trợ giúp cho các công ty Trung Quốc, trong đó đông nhất là công ty quốc doanh hoạt động dưới danh nghĩa là công ty tư nhân trong các lĩnh vực khai khoáng, nông nghiệp và du lịch.

Doanh nghiệp Trung Quốc nằm trong số những công ty được chuyển nhượng nhiều nhất về công nghiệp thực phẩm, khai khoáng hay du lịch mà Campuchia dành cho các nhà đầu tư nước ngoài trong những năm qua. Tổng diện tích đất chuyển nhượng hiện nay lên tới hơn 4 triệu hecta, chiếm 22% diện tích của nước này và rộng hơn diện tích nước Bỉ. Diện tích đất chuyển nhượng tăng nhanh vì tổng diện tích đất cho thuê tăng gấp 6 lần chỉ trong hai năm 2010 và 2011.

Vê mặt này, việc chuyển nhượng 34.000 hécta cho một công ty bất động sản thuộc thành phố Thiên Tân trong Vườn quốc gia Botum Sakor, ở phía Nam tỉnh Koh Kong (Tây-Nam Campuchia), rất đáng được chú ý. Vụ chuyển nhượng này không phù hợp với Luật đất đai của Campuchia cho thuê khu đất rộng hơn 10.000 héc ta, nhưng vẫn thực hiện được một cách hợp pháp nhờ sắc lệnh Hoàng gia năm 2008.

Khung cảnh trong khu rừng hoang dã cổ này thay đổi theo nhịp độ hoạt động của các loại xe máy làm đất. Một con đường cao tốc dài 64 cây số sắp hoàn thành nối với một khu giải trí của Trung Quốc có sòng bạc và hộp đêm và được lính quân đội hoàng gia và hiến binh Campuchia bảo vệ ở lối ra vào đây, là rất lớn và bao gồm một cảng cho tàu du lịch cao cấp và một sân bay, thậm chí một nhà máy thủy điện đang chuẩn bị được xây dựng trên một vùng đất được cho thuê rộng 9.000 hécta.

Chính sách cho thuê đất bằng hợp đồng 99 năm đang được thực hiện trên diện rộng ở Campuchia và là nguồn thu nhập mờ ám của giới đầu nậu, đe dọa sự cân bằng xã hội và môi trường của Campuchia, nước phần lớn vẫn sống nhờ sản xuất nông nghiệp và thu nhập của hơn 70% dân chúng vẫn phụ thuộc vào đất đai. Trong trường hợp này, chính sách nói trên gây phương hại tới hoạt động đánh cá truyền thống của hàng trăm gia đình bị gạt ra ngoài lề một cách không thương tiếc mà không được đền bù tương xứng.

Trong khi những người dân phải chuyển đi nơi khác bắt đầu lên tiếng phê phán hoạt động kinh tế mờ ám của các tổ hợp Trung Quốc được chính giới cầm quyền ủng hộ, tâm lý chống Trung Quốc có nguy cơ đang tập trung cao độ, giống như những gì diễn ra ở Mianma xung quanh đập thủy điện trên Myitsone và các đường ống dẫn dầu nối Vịnh Bengan với Vân Nam.

Trong sân sau truyền thống của mình, Bắc Kinh tạo điều kiện cho một mạng lưới phát triển vốn đang bị một bộ phận trong chính giới phản đối ở ngay chính Trung Quốc. Những người này phê phán các khoản đầu tư khổng lồ vào hạ tầng và dự án công nghiệp hay du lịch, tạo điều kiện cho tham nhũng ồ ạt, bất chấp những đòi hỏi của xã hội về y tế, giáo dục và giúp đỡ người nghèo hay người cao tuổi./.

Nguồn anhbasam

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Đời Đời Nhớ Ơn Quân Trung Quốc

Nước CHXHCN Việt Nam xây mộ ghi ơn lính Trung Cộng đã chết trong 2 cuộc kháng chiến chống Pháp và chống Mỹ.

Ở VN, có hơn 40 nghĩa trang dành để chôn 1446 lính Trung Quốc  đã hy sinh trong cuộc chiến tranh chống Mỹ.

Theo website dưới đây cho biết: nếu tính từ cuộc chiến tranh chống Pháp 1946 cho đến 1954, và kể luôn cả chiến tranh kháng chiến chống Mỹ, thì số lính Trung Quốc đã chết ở Việt Nam là trên 4400 người.

Các từ dùng trong bài báo này được dịch nguyên văn từ tiếng Anh. (Bài báo gốc là tiếng Hoa.).

* Bài Dịch

“Trên 4400 bộ đội Trung Cộng đã bị tử thương trong lúc giúp đỡ Việt Nam trong cuộc chiến tranh chống Pháp và chiến tranh chống Mỹ. Hiện có 1446 lính Trung Quốc, (trong số trên 4400 nói trên), đã được chôn trong 40 nghĩa trang dành cho Quân Đội Nhân Dân Trung Quốc.

Chúng ta hãy kêu gọi chính quyền (Trung Quốc) mang những vị anh hùng của chúng ta về lại Trung Quốc, chúng ta không nên để họ yên nghĩ trong một miền đất không thân thiện. “

Các hình ảnh dưới đây chụp từ một trong số các nghĩa trang (ở Việt Nam) dành cho Quân đội Nhân Dân Trung Quốc. 

(Cuối bài viết là cột mốc km để định vị trí nghĩa trang này)

Over 4000 Chinese PLA soldier were killed helping Vietnam fighting against France and US, 1446 of them were buried in 40 PLA cemeteries in Vietnam,let’s call on the government to bring back our fallen heros, we should not make them rest on unfriendly land.

One of the Chinese PLA fallen soldiers cemeteries in Vietnam.

¿¹ÃÀÔ®Ô½¡ª¡ªÔ½ÄÏÁéɽԮԽ¿¹ÃÀÁÒÊ¿¹«Ä¹AÇø – ÒÕÔ·ÂÛ̳ – ÂÛ̳

Nguồn defense.pk/forums/world-affairs

Bài viết dưới đây ở trong một diễn đàn của người Trung Quốc, và đã được TH chuyển ngữ từ Hoa ngữ qua tiếng Anh.

Against the United States Vietnam – Vietnam Mountain to Vietnam martyrs cemetery in Area A

Against the United States in the Vietnam war, the Chinese people for the Vietnamese paid a huge financial and material resources, human resources support; sent 16 detachment of artillery, engineers, railway corps, Signal Corps, Navy, Air Force, logistics and transport more than 30 million people in Vietnam 3 years and 9 months of combat, air combat 2153 to shoot down U.S. aircraft by 1707, wounded 1608, captured American pilot, 42.

1950 to 1978, Vietnam supplies worth over 200 billion U.S. dollars, of which 93% are non-reimbursable assistance, not including troops fighting life consumed more than 1446 officers and men of sacrifice in the land of Vietnam , more than 4,200 people seriously wounded, and these can not be in monetary terms. In Vietnam, more than 40 locations burial of the martyrs of 1446 against the United States Vietnam War sacrifice.

China’s national strength is not strong, not rich people’s living frugally, not hesitate to make national sacrifices, moral, material, human, full support of the Vietnamese people’s anti-US struggle for national salvation and economic construction.

Users “LUCK passengers and August 2008, in order to pay tribute to the expense of the Chinese officers and men to land in Vietnam, to collect the information of the list of martyrs, alone Riding Alone went to Vietnam, travel over 1000 kilometers, along the way to the Vietnam War against the United States of martyrs who offer a special trip cigarettes, rice wine, brought from the motherland, brought greetings from home to sleep in a foreign land the loyal soul. Flowers presented to the heroic martyrs of all emotional ties to the southern border group and the group Friends of the mind. According to the passengers and, with the change of China-Vietnam relations, Vietnam has also rebuilt the United States Vietnam Martyrs Cemetery.

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The dust of years covered up once the glory and the dream, more than 40 years, we can think of to sleep relatives in a foreign land?

To all the heroes and martyrs of the message can go home, please give the message to convey to their loved ones with enthusiastic users of the martyrs provinces;

If you have relatives and comrades in arms need to know more against the United States Vietnam martyrs cemetery message, please contact us.

The heroic deeds of the Chinese soldiers and civilians against the United States to Vietnam will forever go down in history!

Heroic martyrs are immortal!

Taiyuan Province with Vietnamese hi County, Mountain Township, against the United States Vietnam Martyrs Cemetery Area A list of 84 martyrs

01 Cheng Du Changsha City, Hunan 1934.7 1965.12 enlisted 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 Detachment Chief at birth

02 the Li Shuheng Hunan YanShiShi 1943.11 born 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment to pay squad

03 Qiu Huang Ming Yunmeng County, Hubei 1940.11 born 1967.3.11 the expense of back-62 detachment to pay political means

04 Yang Jun Anlu City, Hubei 1940.8 1960.3 enlisted 1967.4.18 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment squad leader of birth

05 Yao Wan Jilin Daan city 1942.8 born 1961.9 enlisted 1967.4.18 sacrifice Logistics 62 Detachment platoon leader

06 Zhangquan Ji Lin Shuangyang County, born 1940.7 1960.8 enlisted 1967.4.18 sacrifice Logistics 62 Detachment platoon

07 of Magui Ji Lin Zhangling County 1944.8 was born 62 detachment of soldiers 1967.3.11 sacrifice logistics

08 Pengsheng Yi the Jilin Tao Ann City 1942.7 1963.8 enlisted 1967.2.4 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers of birth

09 Hu Lingfa Ji Lin Fuyu County 1943.3 1963.3 enlisted 1967.6.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers at birth

10 Liu Guochen Jilin Fuyu County, 1944.3 1963.8 enlisted 1967.6.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment squad leader

11 any handle Kazuhiko Jilin Fuyu County 1944.10 1963.8 enlisted 1967.6.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of birth to pay squad

Dehui City, 12 Bi Yuejun Jilin born 1943.10 1963.3 enlisted 1967.7.3 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

Jiutai City, 13 Xinhai Qing Jilin born 1944.6 1966.3 enlisted 1967.8.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

14 Yang Jinglin Tianjin 1942.3 1961.8 enlisted 1967.6.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers at birth

15 stone depends on the letter Shandong Dongming 1945.12 born 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

16 Tian Yongquan 1945.2 Shandong Yanggu County Health 1964.3 enlisted 1967.3.11 Sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

17 Liuxi Guo Shandong Laiyang City Health 1964.8 enlisted 1967.6.7 1944.6 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

18 Li Shifang 1946.4 Shandong Liangshan County Health 1965.3 enlisted 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

Health 19 Chiu Heng Meng County, Shandong 1943.10 1965.3 enlisted 1967.6.20 expense of back-62 detachment squad leader

20 Hubei spring hi Heilongjiang Boli 1944.9 born 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

21 1947.11 born in Jixi City, Heilongjiang, Zhou Haijiang 1964.10 enlisted 1967.6.17 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

22 high Jingui Heilongjiang Anda students 1946.5 1965.3 enlisted 1967.6.17 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

23 Xu Liang Heilongjiang Lanxi students 1943.3 1966.8 enlisted 1967.7.3 expense of back-62 detachment squad leader

24 Zhang Yanfei Heilongjiang friendship County Health 1966.3 enlisted 1967.7.6 1945.1, the expense of Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

25 Liu Chunhua Heilongjiang Hailun 1945.10 raw of 1963.3 recruits 1967.6.14 sacrifice logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

26 Li Heilongjiang Hailun 1945.2 raw of 1966.3 recruits 1967.8.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

27 Grow up Heilongjiang Hailun 1945.3 Health 1966.3 enlisted 1967.8.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers (the information Li Youcai)

28 Yang Fuxiang Liaoning Jinzhou City Health 1963.8 enlisted 1967.7.6 1944.3 the expense of back-62 detachment squad leader

29 MENG, Liaoning the Beining 1946.3 Health 1965.9 enlisted 1967.7.6 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

30 XU Shu-Hop Liaoning Beining 1946.9 Health 1965.8 enlisted 1967.4.18 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

31 the Duchamp bridge Liaoning Heishan 1945.12 born 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

Health Wang Shi, Liaoning Heishan 1943.1 32 1964.3 enlisted 1967.3.15 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

33 Wang tree before Liaoning Heishan 1965.3 1945.3 raw recruits 1967.6.30 sacrifice to Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

34 62 Detachment, Yingkou, Liaoning 1940.10 born 1967.1.29 sacrifice logistics often mannered monitor

35 Sun Jingshan Liaoning, Ling original county 1944.3 born 1967.1.29 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers (data Sun Well Hill)

36 Wu Jun only life 1965.3 1946.9 Ling original city, Liaoning enlisted 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

37 Liu sacrifice love Shenyang City, Liaoning 1940.12 raw of 1961.8 recruits 1967.2.3 Logistics 62 Detachment staff officer

Health 38 Zhang Guozhen Shenyang City, Liaoning 1940.9 1961.9 enlisted 1967.4.18 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

39 Liuqing You Shenyang City, Liaoning 1940.7 Health 1961.8 enlisted 1967.7.5 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

40 Zhu Kuiyuan Shenyang City, Liaoning 1942.1 1967.6.15, born 1961.9 enlisted to rescue the Vietnamese masses at the expense of logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

41 completed phase Pavilion Liaoning Xinbin Health 1945.4 1964.3. Enlisted 1967.4.18 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers (data Bixiang Ting)

42 Kim Byung-recorded Health Liaoning Qingyuan County 1946.9 1965.3 enlisted 1967.4.24 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

43 Jing length and width of Benxi City Health 1964.10 enlisted 1967.5.1 1946.1 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

44 directors accounted for the right to 1965.3, 1942.12 born in Fushun City, Liaoning, joined the army 1967.6.7 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

45 Cheng million rounds of Liaoning Fuxin City Health 1964.9 enlisted 1967.6.20 1944.4 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

46 the Gu Zhangang Liaoning Linghai 1942.5 Health 1964.12 enlisted 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment to pay squad

47 Bai Chengyu, Liaoning Liaoning County 1939.11 raw of 1959.3 recruits 1967.8.4 expense of back-62 detachment company commander

48 world 1965.3 1942.8 Health Xinmin City, Liaoning, India enlisted 1967.8.10 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

49 SONG Hong Zhang Anhui Jieshou 1945.1 born 1967.1.29 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

Health 50 Zhang Anhui Ying County 1946.10 1965.3 enlisted 1967.2.4 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

51 Liu Xiuheng the Henan Fanxian 1946.1 born 1967.1.29 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment squad leader

52 Zheng Hong-luan the Henan Fanxian 1943.12 raw of 1964.3 recruits 1967.1.29 expense of back-62 detachment squad leader

53 Mang months of life 1964.3 enlisted Henan Fanxian 1945.6 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment to pay squad

54 stone is now Henan YiChuanXian 1945.10 raw of 1966.3 recruits 1967.1.29 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

55 Li Wutang Health Henan YiChuanXian 1944.1 1966.3 enlisted 1967.2.4 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

56 Li baby Henan YiChuanXian 1945.7 raw of 1966.3 recruits 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

57 Li Jinsheng Henan Taikang 1946.8 born 1966 62 detachment of soldiers enlisted 1967.2.4 sacrifice logistics

58 Wen-Jiang Li Henan the Zhecheng 1944.12 Health 1966.3 enlisted 1967.6.7 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

59 Wu Huazhong Henan Queshan 1945.12 raw of 1965.3 recruits 1967.7.3 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment to pay squad

60 Jiang Tianming Henan Queshan 1945.1 Health 1965.12 enlisted 1967.7.3 sacrifice to back-62 Detachment soldiers

61 Qing-school Henan Province Qi County, 1942.12 Health 1960.8 enlisted 1967.7.6 expense of back-62 detachment squad leader

62 Zhang Yongxiang Tanghe County, Henan 1946.9 raw of 1963.3 recruits 1967.7.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

63 Wang Zhongli of hazard 1944.5 raw of 1966.3 recruits 1967.7.6 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers (Data Wang Zhili)

64 thunder Qishan County Health 1966.3 enlisted 1967.7.3 1948.3 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

65 Xu Changshou Sichuan Linshui 1947.4 Health 1963.3 enlisted 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

66 Chen sacrifice for the group Sichuan Dazhu 1946.10 Health 1966.3 enlisted 1967.7.3 Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

67 Liang-sacrifice, such as Sichuan Dazhu 1966.3 enlisted 1967.7.3, 1947.1 Health Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

68 Chenshao Wu in Sichuan Pengzhou 1944.12 Health 1964.3 enlisted 1967.7.3 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

69 on behalf of Jirong Sichuan Xuanhan 1947 students 1966.3 enlisted 19867.8.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

70 Deng Boqing Kaixian 1965.3 1944.7 raw recruits 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

71 Liu Chengyi Kaixian 1965.3 1943.10 raw recruits 1967.3.11 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

72 Tang Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers sacrifice from the country in Kaixian 1944.7 Health 1965.3 enlisted 1967.4.23

73 Yu Dingqing Kaixian 1965.3 1944.10 raw recruits 1967.5.27 expense of back-62 detachment of soldiers (data Yuding Qing)

74 Peter Woo silver Kaixian 1965.3 1946.10 raw recruits 1967.6.13 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

75 life the Liangyuan De Chongqing Liangping County 1947.12 1966.3 enlisted 1967.5.1 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

76 Liu Chi-Lu Chongqing Liangping County Health 1965.3 enlisted 1967.6.13 1947.2 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

77 Tao far only Liangping County, Chongqing 1945.11 Health 1964.12 enlisted 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

78 Liu Zuo Zhi Health Chongqing Liangping County 1943.1 1965.3 enlisted 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

79 Xu Shoubin Yunyang County, 1944.5 raw of 1965.3 recruits 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

Yunyang County, 80 Tang Yihong 1945.2 Health 1965.3 enlisted 1967.6.20 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

1943.6 81 Jiang chi Yunyang County Health 1963.3 enlisted 1967.8.2 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

Health 82 Xu Haokang to Yunyang County 1943.12 1965.3 enlisted 1967.5.1 sacrifice Logistics 62 detachment of soldiers

83 Li Shengyun Chongqing City 196.07 enlisted 1967.6.7, 1939.9 Health sacrifice Logistics 62 Detachment Assistant

84 Wu Yue station Taishan 1967.8.26 expense of back-170 detachment soldiers

Note:

The following article excerpt should Cemetery heroic deeds of the “steel-day shield,” a book Of the original 62 Detachment Yuanshou Fan Captains

After February 5, the U.S. imperialists to play the Chinese New Year “to stop the bombing of the lure and” conspiracy, suspend the bombing of the Taiyuan area. For this situation, the detachment of the party committee held a Committee to analyze the current situation, and agreed that: a new trick to stop bombing of U.S. imperialism is induced and not a bomb will be upgraded, and are likely to use more troops to directly attack the steel plant power plants and other important goals. Thus, the detachment to take the concentration of forces, key principles cover will cover the troops of the concentrator, in addition to remain high even outside, all close to the steel mills and power plants. Other Baolian positions were necessary to adjust the depth of the enemy main attack direction, echelon configuration, continuous combat fire fist. Repeatedly revised fire plan, the implementation of the melee play set fire to the camp for the fire unit to carry out a vigorous position training activities to educate the troops to do the long-term operational and ideological preparation of the major battles to fight skilled in ferocious fighting.

Right on cue, the U.S. imperialism resumed the bombing of Taiyuan. On the morning of March 10, the enemy two F-4C reconnaissance aircraft has Taiyuan reconnaissance. At this time, the Guangzhou Military Region sent the enemy’s situation Bulletin: afternoon Several batches enemy take-off from the Airports of Thailand.

On the afternoon of the 10th, the weather clears, the blue sky Miles. 15:04, my distant ring of radar found the enemy base, heading Taiyuan. 15 to 10 points troops into the first-class combat readiness, 34 minutes the enemy of four F-105 fighter-bombers overhead around the Taiyuan flight from southwest to northeast in an attempt to attract me fire. We judge the is feint machine, immediately directed the regiment: “pay attention to monitoring, focus your search by follow-up goals. Moment, in the first wave of two batches of 16 F-105 enemy aircraft, along the Isles mountain medial Raozhi southeast direction, to four formation, filed dive attack steel. I already embattled artillery units, long-distance fishing live target, the enemy climb ready to dive in, a small anti-aircraft artillery 3-4 camp and set fire shooting. Was my heavy artillery fire after being hit enemy formations chaos, panic bomb, a group of southwest, south direction escape again be deployed at the station two battalions Liu homes set fire shooting; another group to the northwest escape, have been another one of my regiment and a battalion set fire shooting, immediately the two enemy aircraft billows of smoke the fire fall.

15:58 the enemy’s second wave of six batches of 24 F-105, four F-4C, with each batch of four flying from the northwest to the northeast, with the exception of the first batch along the Mo ryong’am Hill, south side of Raozhi south-easterly direction attack, the remaining installments to bypass the Mona Kunshan north side to the dressing field idling Air dive bombing steel climb from the southeast. Each batch of enemy aircraft by the dressing field empty, the first being a machine gun group shot into the dive and exit, I will again be under heavy fire of small anti-aircraft guns, has four enemy planes in flowering, 2 shot in the fall, four enemy The pilot bailed out, I Shengfu 3, killing one.

The fighting, which lasted 48 minutes, played simply, neat, made eight kills and injured three, captured pilots of three victories, but I only sustained minor injuries to four, to defend the target non-destructive.

The joy of victory, did not make us intoxicated. That night, the detachment of the party committee to convene the Standing Committee to expand, analyze the enemy’s situation, the study measures: the bombing of the U.S. plane to Taiyuan Iron and Steel Works is an upgrade of the war, has a strong political purposes, but its attempt to destroy the steel mills did not succeed, and has been my a heavy blow, will once again invade. Seize the opportunity to do the battles to prepare quickly redeployment. Their main role is in the 2nd Battalion of the regiment of the station Liu homes, go to the steel plant in the main enemy dive route south-east; airport regiment 1st Battalion, raised to the power plant southwest region, in order to enhance the firepower of this two. Forces the night action, the rapid completion of the battles to prepare.

March 11, blue skies. The few good weather, herald the coming of an uphill battle.
Morning, troops do shoot ready to place hidden until after the war. Vietnam in March, the sun baked the earth, the hot air people breath, and last night Bansu the combat readiness, and everyone was very tired.

15:40, the distant early warning radar found several groups of enemy adjacent to the I zone, alarm, commanders and soldiers have the hustle and bustle all the battle positions. 10 minutes after the observation post in enemy an RB-66 reconnaissance plane circled over the rich good. Then the radar of the whole detachment of strong interference, near and far side intelligence is abruptly interrupted. This is a cunning enemy in the attack before the usual means. At this critical moment, I am a resolute decision to observation posts Netcom reported that the enemy, to strengthen the invading search.

15:52, first this enemy aircraft overhead. The first four F-4C from northwest to south along the I Huowang edge surround. Obviously this is a the feint machine, and forces to monitor only, not shooting. Then, five batches of 20 F-105, Northwest Raozhi three steel mills northeast, east, southeast direction, turns dive-bomb to the steel mills and anti-aircraft artillery positions.
After the exit of the first wave of enemy aircraft, the second batch of 20 F-105 was to follow.

Attack of the enemy today yesterday, this time using a nearly 50 percent of the troops to suppress my anti-aircraft artillery fire, like the gambler lost dog eat dog, crazy retaliation. Blasting bombs, steel ball-ground missiles overwhelming hit to my position. My guns, gun unit regardless of their own safety, always focused on the steel of the enemy of the heavy fire of the main fire attack, the fighting is fierce. Suddenly, an enemy in the other three under the cover of Six-and row position to vote two cartons of more than 700 pieces of steel ball. Suddenly, positions on the billowing smoke, shrapnel, stones flying. Six group of bunkers, bomb drop a few pieces; In addition to the squad leader and seven gunners, and the remaining eight people shot fell to the ground, two of them to sacrifice. Squad leader Zhao Yi jump on the gun plate to replace a gunner; Li Wenzhong right arm and feet, two gunners were wounded, he Renzhaojutong, keep fighting; seven the gunner ancient Tianyang, the replacement of five gunners. At this time, fallen five gunner weapons clear water from the ground up, step onto the emplacement of ancient days, Yang said: “You go and delivery of the bombs, I pressure.” With bloody hands continuously shells pressed into the bore . Six gunner Tianbao Ying, waking from a coma, trying to hold up the body, kneeling on the ground, barely pressed five bullets passed out. Zhang Deshun wounded 260 in various parts of a gunner, out of the coma, trying to climb to the gun disk three times did not go up, health workers to rescue him, he said: “to save others, I can withstand.”

In this way, fought, fought a bloody war, and again to the invading enemy a crushing blow to keep the steel mills. This thrilling battle, which lasted 30 minutes, a total of 10 kills, hit by two enemy prisoners of war pilot 7. The detachment also paid the death of 13 people, injuring 31 people the cost.

The battle has just ended, Taiyuan City, the people rejoice, spreading the news, and some lug fruit, some concernedly vegetables, have been going to the gun positions to condole with us. Vietnamese grandmother holding Chairman Mao as the soldiers said: “You played good! Solution for our Vietnamese people hate, out of gas, you, the Chinese army, really great, we have to water much appreciate your support.”

After the war, the General Staff, General Political Department to give notice of detachment on the 10th, the 11th victory of the air operations praise.

(B)

After March 11, weather and more rain. The enemy was a heavy blow could not wait to look for an opportunity of revenge. Night and daytime weather conditions from March 18th, the enemy, take a small group of single-frame attack methods continue to attack the steel, and began the attack on the plant. Because of my limited weapons and equipment performance, shot in night and weather conditions will be difficult, twice a night fighting did not lay the enemy, some of the fear of difficulty impatience. This situation, leaders at all levels starting from the ideological education of the military units, lessons learned, to improve the organization and command and operating methods. Superior to the tune of a searchlight battalion to protect the small anti-aircraft artillery night firing. Battle the night of March 24, for the first time to shoot down the enemy one, and enhance the confidence of victory. Thereafter until mid-April, my detachment to fight day and night weather conditions 16 and shot down eight enemy aircraft and injured three.

After mid-April, the weather improves, the enemy began a large-scale attack of the day and night. April 18th, the enemy dispatched F-105 aircraft, nine batches of 36 attacks the steel mills and gun positions. Forces due to the previous major victory, the growth underestimate the enemy paralysis mood, coupled with the rainstorm washed out fortifications and communication lines is not repaired in a timely manner and not enough implementation of operational readiness. Although this battle to shoot down the enemy five, injured two, but the steel plant part of the workshop shot in the Ministry of casualties.

April 20, the battle also played good enough. To this end, the detachment of the party committee decided in two battles, for example, to fully mobilize the masses, anti-underestimate the enemy paralysis and emotions of pride, put the enemy’s situation, controversy France, looking for problems to provide for measures from the ideological, organizational, material and technology do a better job combat readiness. May 1st, the enemy has deployed six batches of 28 F-105 aircraft, to attack the steel mills and gun positions, the whole detachment set fire melee heavy fire, made to shoot down six and injured two victories.

Since May, as U.S. imperialism’s new escalation of the war, the target is gradually increasing. Not only attack the steel mills, power plants, gun positions, but generally bombing around the stations, bridges, residential and other targets. Tactics into a large formation of hollow close to the distributed multi-point attack. The new changes against the enemy on the tactical use of my troops, taken to the main cover of the major targets of some troops to implement the tactics of maneuver warfare, do not give the enemy an opportunity to exploit. June 13th will be a certain regiment of a 100 mm anti-aircraft guns even transferred to the zone northwest plantations enemy must pass through the route under ambush. When the enemy invading suddenly opened fire, shot down in one fell swoop, each one wounded enemy to the enemy by surprise blow. June 30th, the enemy sent out three waves of 60 aircraft to attack inside and outside my zone objectives. 24 attacks focus on anti-nine goals in the region, the fighting is fierce. Commanders at all levels on the enemy situation to determine accurate, and resolute determination, was not fooled by the enemy feint machine, adhere to set fire, close combat, shot down four enemy, wounded three.

In this way, we fight against the multi-point bombing of the enemy battle continued until the troop rotation to return home. During this time, I Detachment Combat 60, kills 49 and injured 66.

August 28, my detachment satisfactorily completed the motherland given to Vietnam combat missions, Taiyuan, air defense mission in Vietnam was ordered to be transferred to his department, and triumphal return home. During the whole into the Vietnam War, the whole detachment has emerged with four second-class hero, a third class Chen Lian and hero row 15, the first, second, third class minister Ban 177 24; first-class hero, the second hero 78, 2171, third class minister.

Before returning to the leadership of several of us came to the martyrs’ cemetery, pay tribute to the 84 martyrs buried here. Located in the North too Province, Vietnam Mountain Township, hi County I detachment of the martyrs’ cemetery, yard, large flat tomb-based high hold up the entire cemetery, stands the mausoleum of the martyrs monument in the sunshine, it is more solemn. We stand in the tomb of the martyr, silently watching this horizontal tombstone, as if they saw the familiar faces of the martyrs and heroic struggle of the figure.

First-class hero Cheng Du, a certain regiment of publicity Chief. In March 11 battle, he braved enemy bombing carried the shells to the six-even position. Battlefield propaganda so that each class row. When the enemy dive bombing positions, comrades advised him to go covert, he resolutely refused to continue to pressure to help six, seven gunners send shells, until the heroic sacrifice.
First-class hero Guzhan Gang, a certain regiment of three with the vice squad. The battle on June 20, the head of many serious injury, and still adhere to the standing emplacement, he resorted to the whole body strength to press to start the grip, and play 1 rounds. Wet his shirt, pants stained with blood, the DC gun plate, and his total disregard for, and turned to lifting up to 30 kg shells, grit your teeth, the first two rounds to play out. Due to his injuries, the shock of the artillery, he fell from the emplacement, fainted. When a huge bomb explosion sound awakened him, and picked up the third rounds climb to the gun, just to climb and passed out. So his hands tightly holding his bomb the Vietnamese people’s anti-US struggle for national salvation, and their last drop of blood.
First-class hero Zhukui Yuan, a certain regiment of logistics at the soldiers. June 15, struggling to seek river ferry rescued downed Vietnamese elderly focus, monument, but heroic devotion. 17, Taiyuan city party and government organs and all the masses of the people, held a solemn memorial ceremony. The Vietnamese people as “the great internationalist fighter.
Sunset, thoughts without a break. With infinite grief and memories, plodding pace of acquisition to beam bouquet of flowers placed on each martyr’s tomb. Raised his head, the righting cap, raised his right hand, one of my life feeling most standard military Sapporo respect to the martyrs. Dear comrades, farewell! You cast a shield with flesh and blood to block the indiscriminate bombing of the U.S. imperialists, successfully defending Taiyuan, the motherland will never forget you, the Vietnamese people will never forget you. You to Vietnam battle of heroic deeds will always loaded in the annals of the friendship between the peoples of China and Vietnam.

Note: (Cheng Du Lieshi widow grave photos taken from the network)

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4 phản hồi to “Cả Việt Nam và Kampuchea đều quay tròn trong quỹ đạo của Trung Quốc”

  1. Sang said

    The Kingdom of Cambodia is a country of about 8,000,000 people, approximately the size of the state of Missouri, located in Southeast Asia. It is bordered on the west and northwest by Thailand, on the north by Laos, on the east by Vietnam, and on the south by the Gulf of Thailand. The climate is tropical, with monsoon rains from May to October and a dry season from December to March. There is little variation in temperature, which is hot most of the year. There are mountains in the southwest and north, but most of the country consists of low, flat plains. Three-quarters of the land is covered with forests and woodland, and much of the land is cultivated with rice paddies. Cambodia has few roads and bridges, and many of the existing roads and bridges are in poor condition due to years of war and political upheaval. Aside from rice, the main crop, Cambodia also produces rubber and corn.

    The Cambodian people and their language are also known as “Khmer.” About 90 percent of the people in Cambodia are ethnic Cambodians, or Khmer; five percent are Vietnamese; one percent are Chinese; and four percent belong to other ethnic groups, including the Cham who are predominantly Muslims and who migrated from Vietnam long ago. Most Cambodians are wet-rice farmers. Eighty percent of them live in the countryside and practice subsistence farming. It is estimated that about 48 percent of Cambodian men and about 22 percent of Cambodian women can read and write. Cambodia is an overwhelmingly Buddhist country; 95 percent of the population practices Theravada Buddhism, the type of Buddhism found in many of the countries in southern Asia. Other faiths include Roman Catholicism, Islam, animism, and Mahayana Buddhism— the type of Buddhism found most often in northern Asia. The flag of Cambodia contains two horizontal blue stripes divided by a wider, red stripe in the middle. In the center of the red stripe is a white temple, representing the main temple of Angkor Wat, the capital city of the Khmer empire from the ninth to the fifteenth centuries.
    HISTORY

    Before 1975 almost no people of Cambodian ancestry lived in the United States. The 150,000 Cambodians who immigrated by 1990 settled in the United States as a result of the tragic events in their native country in which the United States was deeply involved. Because Cambodian Americans are such a new part of America, to know something of their history is especially important in order to appreciate their culture and their unique situation.
    ORIGINS

    Cambodia is an ancient country with a long history that has been a source of pride and pain to the Cambodian people. The Cambodians probably lived originally in western China, but they migrated down the Mekong River valley into Indochina sometime before the common era. In Indochina, they came into contact with the highly developed civilization and culture of ancient India. From India, they took the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism and the idea of state organization as well as the concept of kingship. These religious and political ideas became the basis of the early state of Funan (second to fifth centuries) whose territory encompassed present day Cambodia and the southern part of southern Vietnam. Funan’s port city of Oc Eo received traders coming from India and China. Funan was also well known for the irrigation and drainage canals that crisscrossed its land.

    The greatest period in Cambodian history was the Angkor period, named after a huge complex of religious and public monuments. Funan’s two capital cities, Angkor Wat (City-Temple) and Angkor Thom (Great City), were the most spectacular of these monuments. Most scholars date the Angkor period as having lasted from about 802—when its founder declared the independence of Cambodia and conferred on himself the title of God-King (Deva-Raja)—to about 1431 A.D. During much of this time, Cambodia, or “Kambuja-Desa,” as it is called in old inscriptions, was the most powerful kingdom in Southeast Asia, governing great expanses of territory that are now part of Thailand and southern Vietnam, as well as the land that constitutes Cambodia today.

    By the end of the Angkor era, the kingdom of Kambuja-Desa came under increased pressure from the Siamese (Thai) on the west and the Vietnamese on the east. The ability of the royal bureaucracy to manage the complex irrigation system may also have weakened. Gradually, the center of the kingdom shifted from Angkor to Phnom Penh, today’s capital city. Trade had become more important for the Cambodians, and Phnom Penh was located where the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap come together, an easier location from which to control trade with Laos and China.

    From the 1400s on, the Cambodians lost territory to both the Siamese and the Vietnamese. By the 1800s, Cambodia had fallen almost entirely under the control of Vietnam and Siam, and Cambodia was sealed off from the outside influences that were beginning to affect other Southeast Asian countries. In 1864, Cambodia became a French protectorate.
    CAMBODIA UNDER THE FRENCH

    King Norodom, the King of Cambodia at the time the French established control, appears to have seen French protection as a way of keeping his neighbors at bay and perhaps also as a help in defeating the numerous revolts against him by his own subjects. France gradually tightened its control over Cambodian political life, though. After Norodom died in 1904, the French made his half-brother, Sisowath, the king instead of Norodom’s son, whom the French considered too independent. French officials also hand picked and placed in office the two kings who followed Sisowath.

    While there was a steady growth of Cambodian nationalism, the country remained at peace through the early part of the twentieth century. When World War II broke out and France was occupied by Germany, the French remained in control in Indochina, with the agreement of Germany’s allies in Asia, the Japanese. In 1941, Monivong, the king who had followed Sisowath, died, and the French made Monivong’s grandson, Norodom Sihanouk, king. Sihanouk was only 19 years of age at the time. Although he was highly intelligent, artistically talented, and apparently sincere in wanting to be a good ruler, Sihanouk had had no training for the throne and relied heavily on his French advisors in the early years of his rule.

    Sihanouk was to dominate Cambodian history for most of the half century following his coronation. He also developed from a protégé of the French into a determined, if cautious, adherent to the cause of Cambodian independence. The occupation of Japanese troops over Southeast Asia provided many Asian colonies with evidence that the European colonists could be defeated. Anti-French feelings intensified in Cambodia when the French attempted, in the 1940s, to replace the traditional writing system with a system based on the letters used by Europeans. In 1945, Japanese troops disarmed the French colonial forces in Cambodia. At their instigation, Sihanouk declared Cambodian independence from France on March 12, 1945.

    The French reestablished themselves in Cambodia after the defeat of Japan, but their power had been seriously weakened. Nationalist feelings continued to grow stronger in Cambodia. In France, some young Cambodian students, influenced by the French Communist Party, began to formulate ideas that combined extreme nationalism with Communist ideology. Three of these students were to become the most important leaders of the Khmer Rouge: Saloth Sar, later known as Pol Pot, Khieu Samphan, and Ieng Sary. All nationalists looked back to the time of Angkor Wat as a symbol and ideal of Cambodian greatness.

    By 1953, the war in neighboring Vietnam was becoming a problem for the French, exacerbated by its momentous unpopularity in France. Cambodian resistance and the prospect of fighting another full-scale war in Cambodia led France to grant Cambodia independence on November 9, 1953, while retaining much control over its economy. In 1954, after the French had failed to reimpose their rule on Vietnam, delegates to the Geneva Conference agreed that elections would be held in all three of the countries of Indochina. In order to participate in the elections, Sihanouk abdicated his throne in 1955 in favor of his father, and assumed the highest office in the country as its Prime Minister.

    Sihanouk managed to keep his country neutral during many of the long years of war that raged in Vietnam and Laos. He was, at the same time, intolerant of Cambodian leftists, whom he labeled the “Khmer Rouge,” or “Red Khmer.” Many of these leftists fled into the countryside.
    CAMBODIA, THE VIETNAM WAR, AND THE UNITED STATES

    The United States became involved in Southeast Asia to preserve a non-Communist regime in South Vietnam. In Laos, Cambodia’s northern neighbor, there was an extension of the Vietnam war in the 1960s, in the form of an armed conflict between Pathet Lao forces allied with North Vietnam and the Royal Government of Laos which was pro-American. The policies of Prince Sihanouk were primarily aimed at keeping Cambodia out of these wars and, until about 1970, he was largely successful. His constant attempts to play the different sides in the Vietnam conflict against each other, though, resulted in hostility toward him by the pro-American governments of Thailand and South Vietnam and in a suspicious attitude toward him on the part of the Americans. By 1966, Sihanouk had forged a secret alliance with North Vietnam because he felt certain that the Vietnamese Communists would win the war and because the North Vietnamese agreed, under the treaty, to respect the borders of Cambodia, to leave Cambodian civilians alone, and to avoid conflicts with the Cambodian army.

    War in the surrounding countries undermined the economy of Cambodia and threatened to spill across the border. Prince Sihanouk blamed the United States for engineering the 1963 coup against the Vietnamese government that resulted in the killing of its leaders. He subsequently refused all forms of American assistance and severed diplomatic relations with the United States. With regard to Vietnamese communists, in a secret treaty, Sihanouk agreed to allow them to station troops inside Cambodia, along the border with south Vietnam, and to receive weapons brought from China and North Vietnam through the port of Sihanoukville. South Vietnam and the United States were greatly concerned about the presence of Vietnamese communist troops in Cambodia and the facilities reserved to them by the government of Cambodia. In a secret move, the United States ordered a carpet bombing of Vietnamese communist sites in Cambodia that caused untold sufferings for the Cambodian population living in these areas.

    In 1970, apparently with American support, General Lon Nol staged a coup while Prince Sihanouk was on his way to France for health reasons. As the United States welcomed a more cooperative Cambodian regime, the Vietnam War had finally overtaken Cambodia. In May of 1970, American and South Vietnamese forces invaded eastern Cambodia, driving the Vietnamese communist forces farther into the country.

    Out of power, Sihanouk joined forces with the Khmer leftists whom he formerly persecuted. Having the prince on their side gave the Khmer Rouge an enormous advantage in drawing support from the peasants, many of whom still regarded Sihanouk as an almost divine figure. At the same time, American aerial bombing in the Cambodian countryside, directed against both the North Vietnamese and the Khmer Rouge, caused enormous disruption of the traditional society. In the first half of 1973, before the U.S. Congress prohibited further bombing in Cambodia, American planes dropped over 100,000 tons of bombs on the country.

    It is difficult to say to what extent the extreme radicalism of the Khmer Rouge was due to the bombing, or to far-left Maoist ideas developed by Khmer Rouge leaders as students in France, or to the carrying out of these ideas by generally very young and uneducated peasant soldiers. However, the Khmer Rouge appears to have already been uncompromising and brutal in the areas it controlled even before it took control of the whole country. In April of 1975, with the United States having pulled its troops out of Vietnam and Saigon about to fall to the Vietnamese Communists, the Khmer Rouge marched into Phnom Penh.
    REVOLUTION AND WAR

    Cambodia became an experiment in revolutionary social change known as Democratic Kampuchea (D.K.). In order to create a completely new society in which everyone would be equal, the Khmer Rouge, under the leadership of Pol Pot, ordered everyone, including the elderly and sick, out of the cities and towns of Cambodia and into the countryside. Family life, all traces of individualism, and all attachments to old institutions, including religion, were abolished. A new calendar for a new era was invented, with 1975 renamed “Year Zero.” All Cambodians were put to work at agricultural labor in order to build up the agricultural surplus of the nation to finance rapid industrialization. In effect, these uncompromising ideals turned the entire country into a collection of forced labor camps: soldiers whose young lives had consisted mainly of bitter warfare acted as armed guards.

    Estimates of the number of people who died under Pol Pot’s Democratic Kampuchea regime vary from one million to two million. The number of people actually executed by the Khmer Rouge is unknowable. How many people died of starvation and poor living conditions, some of which may have been the after-effects of war and U.S. bombing, also remains uncounted. Still, the period from 1975 to 1979 was traumatic for all Cambodians. Cambodians in the United States and elsewhere tell of seeing close friends and family members being killed by the Khmer Rouge and of enduring great suffering.

    Democratic Kampuchea, in addition to espousing an extreme form of socialism, was also committed to extreme nationalism. The Khmer Rouge wanted to recreate the greatness of the Angkor period, which meant retaking the areas that had become parts of Vietnam and Thailand. Border skirmishes between Cambodian and Vietnamese forces led Vietnam to invade Cambodia on Christmas Day in 1978, and by early January the Vietnamese held Phnom Penh. In the chaos of war, the rice crop went untended and thousands of Cambodians, starving and freed from the Khmer Rouge labor camps, began crossing the border into Thailand. Television cameras brought the images of these refugees into the homes of Americans and other westerners, and immigration from Cambodia to the United States began as a response to the “Cambodian refugee crisis.”

    Under pressure from the United States and other anti-communist and anti-Vietnamese nations, Vietnamese troops pulled out of Cambodia in 1989, leaving behind the Cambodian government they had created—the People’s Republic of Kampuchea. In the meantime, with the help of anti-Vietnamese governments, a Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea was formed with the participation of forces loyal to the now infamous Khmer Rouge and to the Khmer People National Liberation Front. In 1991 all Cambodian parties signed the Paris Peace treaty, which called for United Nations Transitional Authorities in Cambodia to prepare the country for a general election. In 1993 the elected representatives voted to form a coalition government composed of the two political parties that had garnered the most votes. They also decided to reestablish the monarchy with Sihanouk as king and head of state. The Khmer Rouge refused to take part in this election and continued to oppose the new government.
    IMMIGRATION

    Large numbers of refugees from Cambodia have come to the United States only since 1979, when the U.S. refugee program began accepting Cambodians from refugee camps in Thailand. Most of these arrived in the early 1980s. Of the 118,823 foreign-born Cambodians identified by the 1990 Census in the United States, only 16,880 (or about 14 percent) had arrived before 1980. As thousands of refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia began to come into the United States each year, the United States developed organizational procedures for resettlement. Voluntary agencies (or VOLAGS), many of which were affiliated with American churches, had been set up by 1975 to assist the first wave of Vietnamese refugees. These agencies had the task of finding sponsors, individuals, or groups who would assume financial and personal responsibility for refugee families for up to two years. By the early 1980s, refugee camps had been set up in various countries throughout Southeast Asia. Most Cambodians stayed in refugee camps in Thailand, but many who were being prepared for resettlement in the United States were sent to camps in the Philippines or elsewhere. Agencies under contract to the U.S. Department of State organized classes to teach English to familiarize refugees with American language and culture. In 1980 and 1981, 34,107 Cambodians entered the United States. From 1982 to 1984, the influx continued, with 36,082 Cambodians entering the United States. After that time, the numbers began to diminish. In 1985 and 1986, 19,921 Cambodians reached American soil, and from 1987 to 1990, only 11,843 Cambodians were admitted. By the early 1990s, prospects of a political settlement in Cambodia removed much of the perceived urgency of accepting Cambodian refugees, and immigration from Cambodia to the United States decreased to very small numbers.
    SETTLEMENT PATTERNS

    The 1990 U.S. Census found almost 150,000 Cambodian Americans in the United States, although those active in working with Cambodian immigrants warn that the Census may have undercounted this group, since the Cambodians are so new to American society and many may not have responded to the Census. The largest concentration of Cambodian Americans is in California, where close to 70,000, or nearly half of the people of Cambodian ethnicity, appear to have settled. The largest Cambodian community was Long Beach, California, where over 17,000, according to Census, made their home. Again, however, Cambodian American spokespersons maintain that these estimates are dramatically low and that the actual number of Cambodian Americans was probably closer to twice that many. Nearby Los Angeles also had a significant population of Cambodians of at least 4,250. Stockton, California, had the second largest Cambodian community, numbering at least 10,000. Outside of California, the greatest number of Cambodian Americans were found in Massachusetts, where over 14,000 lived. About half of the Massachusetts Cambodians lived in the city of Lowell. Other states with large Cambodian populations include Texas (at least 6,000), Pennsylvania (at least 5,500, located mostly in Philadelphia), Virginia (at least 4,000), New York (at least 4,000, over two-thirds of whom lived in New York City), Minnesota (at least 4,000), and Illinois (over 3,000). Despite their large numbers, Cambodian Americans remained very
    These Cambodian immigrants are sisters who travelled to this country together.
    These Cambodian immigrants are sisters who travelled to this country together.
    much newcomers and often strangers in their adopted country. Only about one in every five foreignborn Cambodians in the United States had become a naturalized U.S. citizen by the early 1990s.

    Acculturation and Assimilation

    Cambodian Americans are members of one of the youngest ethnic groups in American society. According to the 1990 Census, the median age of people of Cambodian ancestry in the United States was only 19.4, compared to 34.1 for other Americans. Almost half of the Cambodian Americans counted in that Census year were under 18 years of age. About 42 percent of these Cambodian Americans below the age of 18 were born in the United States; most of the others arrived between 1980 and 1986.

    Cambodian Americans also live in larger families than other Americans. The average number of people in their families was 5.03, compared to an average of 3.06 in white American families and 3.48 in black American families. Both the youth of Cambodian Americans and their large families indicate that, small though their numbers are, they will continue to grow as a proportion of American society.

    Adjusting to American society has been difficult for most Cambodians, who come from rural areas and have few relevant job skills and little familiarity with mainstream American culture. One of the difficulties has been the problem of differences between generations, between older people who see themselves as Cambodians and sometimes speak little,
    Actor Virak Ui is sitting on the set of a Cambodian home at Boston’s Children’s Museum. The exhibit, called “From Time to Time: Celebrating 75 Years at Our House,” traces the city’s diverse immigration history.
    Actor Virak Ui is sitting on the set of a Cambodian home at Boston’s Children’s Museum. The exhibit, called “From Time to Time: Celebrating 75 Years at Our House,” traces the city’s diverse immigration history.
    if any English, and younger people who have either been born in the United States or have no memory of Cambodia and consider themselves entirely American. According to Cambodian American scholar and activist Dr. Sam-Ang Sam, many Cambodian young people are plagued by identity problems, leading them to discard their Cambodian first names in favor of English first names, and they must often deal with racism from classmates and with being teased about their “foreignness.” To help maintain a sense of ethnic identity, many Cambodian community organizations offer Cambodian language classes, the most active of which are maintained by Cambodian Buddhist monks.

    Cambodian Americans won the sympathy of many Americans in 1979 and in the early 1980s, when the plight of Cambodian refugees in Thailand became world news. Since their arrival in the United States, though, some unfortunate stereo-types of Cambodians have developed. Because Cambodian culture places a high value on courtesy and avoidance of direct confrontation, other Americans sometimes stereotype them as passive. Among older Cambodian Americans some of this appearance of passivity results from their unfamiliarity with the larger American society or with the English language.
    DANCES AND SONGS

    Music is important to traditional Cambodian culture, and Cambodian Americans put a great deal of effort into maintaining this link with their heritage. Traditional music ensembles perform in almost all large Cambodian communities in the United States. There are six types of music ensembles, but the type known as areak ka is considered the most traditional and is used for popular religious ceremonies and wedding ceremonies. The instruments used in the areak ka ensemble are a three-stringed fiddle, a type of monochord, a long-necked lute, and goblet-drums. Other instruments that may be found in Cambodian ensembles include a quadruple-reed oboe, several types of gongs, a large barrel drum, a flute, a two-stringed fiddle, a three-stringed zither, hammered dulcimers, cymbals, and the xylophone. Cambodian music may sound somewhat strange at first to those who are unfamiliar with Asian music.

    The best known Cambodian dance is called the “masked dance,” because the dancers wear the masks of the characters they portray. The masked dance always tells the story of the Ramayana, an epic that the Cambodians took from ancient India. All parts in the masked dance, even those of women, are played by men. Cambodian classical ballet, or “court dance,” on the other hand, has traditionally been danced by women, although men have been entering classical ballet since the 1950s. There are a number of Cambodian dancers in the United States, and the art of dance is also beginning to revive in Cambodia. Bringing this part of the culture back to life, however, is difficult, since an estimated 90 percent of all trained dancers died during the Khmer Rouge regime.
    PROVERBS

    Linguist Karen Fisher-Nguyen has observed that proverbs in Cambodia before 1975 were so important a means of educating the young that they could be found in almost all of the teaching materials of the public schools, and that studying proverbs was actually a part of the school curriculum. Many Cambodian Americans continue to treasure their proverbs as expressions of the traditional wisdom of their people. The sayings below reflect many of their values and ideals: The new rice stalk stands erect; the old stalk, full of grain, leans over; Travel on a river by following its bends, live in a country by following its customs; The small boat should not try to be a big boat; Don’t let an angry man wash your dishes; don’t let a hungry man guard your rice; Drop by drop, the vessel will fill; pour it, and everything will spill; Men have words—elephants have tusks; If you don’t take your wife’s advice, you’ll have no rice seed next year; Don’t rush to dump your rain water when you hear the sound of thunder; Losing money is better than wasting words; If you are an egg, don’t bang against a rock; Gain knowledge by study, wealth by work.
    HOLIDAYS

    For three days in mid-April, Cambodians observe Chaul Chnam, the solar New Year, which is the most important and most common Cambodian holiday. Many parties and dances are held during these three days, and traditional Cambodian music is usually heard. The game of bos chhoung remains a popular New Year’s tradition among Cambodians in the United States. In this game, young men and women stand facing each other, about five feet apart. A young man takes a scarf rolled into a ball and throws it at a young woman in whom he is interested. She must catch the scarf, and if she misses it, she must sing and dance for him. If she catches the scarf, she will throw it back to him. If he misses it, he must sing and dance. For Buddhist Cambodians, the New Year Festival is an important time to visit the temple to pray, meditate, and plan for the coming year. The Water Festival, held in November when the flooding has stopped and the water starts to flow out of the great lake into the river again, is celebrated in both Cambodia and the United States. It usually involves boat races and colorful, lighted floats sailing down the river.
    HEALTH ISSUES

    In addition to the health problems faced by other poor groups in the United States, Cambodian Americans face special mental and physical health problems resulting from their tragic recent history. Almost all lived under the extreme brutality of the Khmer Rouge regime that ruled the country from 1975 to 1979, and their native country has been in a state of war both before and since that time. Most Cambodian refugees also spent time living in refugee camps in Thailand or other Southeast Asian countries. Health professionals and others who work with Cambodian Americans often note that these experiences have left Cambodians with a sense of powerlessness that affects many, even in America. Physical ailments often result from the emotional anguish they have suffered and continue to suffer. Among those who have been resettled in Western countries, there has appeared a strange malady often referred to as the “Pol Pot syndrome,” after the leader of the Khmer Rouge. The “Pol Pot syndrome” includes insomnia, difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite, and pains in various parts of the body.

    The stress that has led to such illnesses often tends to create a low general level of health for Cambodian Americans. In the entry on “Khmer” in Refugees in the United States: A Reference Handbook, May M. Ebihara reports that 84 percent of Cambodian households in California have reported that at least one household member was under the care of a medical doctor, compared to 45 percent of Vietnamese households and 24 percent of Hmong and Lao households. The syndrome known as “post traumatic stress disorder,” a type of delayed reaction to extreme emotional stress that has been found to affect many Vietnam veterans, is also common among Cambodian refugees in the United States.

    Traditional Cambodian healers, known as krou Khmer, may be found in many Cambodian American communities. Some of the techniques used by these healers are massages, “coining,” and treatment with herbal medicines. “Coining,” or koh khchal, is a method of using a copper coin dipped in tiger balm to apply pressure to acupuncture points of the body. Many Western doctors believe that this actually can be an effective means of pain relief. Coining does leave bruise marks, however, and these can alarm medical personnel and others not familiar with this practice.
    Language

    Cambodian, or Khmer, is classified by linguists as an Austro-Asiatic language, related to Mon—a language spoken in Burma and western Thailand—and various tribal languages of Southeast Asia. Although many major Asian languages are tonal languages, Cambodian is not tonal: as in the European languages, tones of voice may indicate emotion, but they do not change the meanings of words. The Cambodian alphabet, which has 47 letters, is derived from the alphabet of ancient India, and it is similar to the Thai and Laotian alphabets, as the Thai and Lao people borrowed their systems of writing from the Cambodians.
    GREETINGS AND OTHER COMMON EXPRESSIONS

    Cambodian has many sounds that are quite different from those of English, and these are represented by the letters of the Cambodian alphabet. Linguists usually use a phonetic alphabet to write these sounds in the characters used by English and other European languages, but the phrases below are written in a fashion that should provide nonspecialist speakers of American English with a fairly close approximation to their actual pronunciation: Som Chumreap Sur —Good Day; Loak sohk suh-bye jeeuh tay? —Are you well, sir?; Loak-srey sohk suh-bye jeeuh tay? —Are you well, madame?; Baht, knyom sohk suh-bye jeeuh tay —I’m fine (from a man); Jah, knyom sohk suh-bye jeeuh tay —I’m fine (from a woman); Som Aw Kun —Thank-you; Sohm toh —Excuse me, or I’m sorry; Meun uh-wye tay —Don’t mention it, or you’re welcome; Teuh nah? —Where are you going?; Niyeh piesah anglay bahn tay? —Can you speak English?; Sdap bahn tay —Do you understand?; Sdap bahn —I understand; Sdap meun bahn —I don’t understand; Som Chumreap Lea —Goodbye.
    LITERATURE

    Much of the early literature of Cambodia is written in Sanscrit and known by modern scholars primarily from inscriptions on temples and other public buildings. Classical Cambodian literature is based on Indian models, and the Reamker, a Cambodian version of the Indian poem the Ramayana, is probably the most important piece of classical Cambodian literature. The Reamker is still known by Cambodians today. In the years before 1975, episodes from this poem were often acted out by dancers in the royal court or by villagers in village festivals. A collection of aphorisms, known as the Chbab (or “laws”), exists in both written and oral literature. Until recently, children were required to memorize the Chbab in school. Similar to the Chbab are the Kotilok (or “Art of Good Conduct”), which are fables designed to teach moral lessons.

    European literary forms, such as novels, had taken root in Cambodia by the 1970s, but almost no literature was produced under the Khmer Rouge, and many intellectuals were killed during the Khmer Rouge regime. Since 1979, suffering under the Khmer Rouge has been a major theme in Cambodian literature, both in Cambodia and abroad. Among Cambodian Americans, also, the urge to bear witness to the horrors of the years from 1975 to 1979 has inspired many to write, and as a result, the autobiography is the most commonly employed literary form. Many of these Cambodian American authors have taken coauthors, but some have mastered English sufficiently to write solely authored works.
    Family and Community Dynamics

    The family is extremely important to Cambodian Americans, in part because so many of them lost family members in their previous countries. They tend to have very large families. Children—especially young children—are treasured, and parents treat them with a great deal of affection. Despite the importance of family for Cambodian Americans, they have relatively high numbers of households headed by a single, female parent; in 1990 about 20 percent of Cambodian American households were headed by women, a factor that contributes to their poverty. This high proportion of female-headed households does not appear to be primarily the result of divorce, but rather of the fact that women outnumber men in the Cambodian population, due to years of war.

    In Cambodia, men are responsible for providing for their families. Only men can occupy the prestigious status of the Buddhist monk. They also receive formal education, whereas Cambodian women are trained certain tasks in the home. Contrary to other Asian cultures, the Cambodian woman occupies a key position in the household. Generally, the wife budgets the family assets, and cares for the children. She is highly regarded by the men in her own family and by Cambodian society at large. In the refugee camps, many Cambodian women had their first taste of formal education. In the United States, young Cambodian American women are pursuing their educations in large numbers, and they have often become important as breadwinners for their families.
    WEDDINGS

    Traditional Cambodian wedding ceremonies are still held by Cambodian Americans, and even members of other ethnic groups who have married Cambodians have celebrated these ceremonies. Although in Cambodia marriages are often arranged by the parents, it is becoming common for Cambodian American young people to choose their own partners. The bride in a Cambodian wedding wears a sampot, an ornate brocade wrap-skirt. She also wears many bracelets, anklets, and necklaces. Grooms sometimes wear the traditional kben (baggy pantaloons) and jacket, but western-style suits are becoming common.

    A procession will bring gifts of food and drink to the bride’s home. At the beginning of the wedding, the couple sits at a table covered with flowers, fruit, candles, and sometimes with a sword to chase evil spirits away. Friends and relatives take turns standing up in front of the crowd to talk about the new couple. A Buddhist monk cuts a lock of hair from the bride and the groom and mixes the two locks together in a bowl to symbolize the sharing of their lives. Gifts, frequently in the form of envelopes with money in them, are offered to the couple by the guests. At the end of the wedding, the couple goes through the ritual known as ptem, in which knots are tied in a white string bracelet to represent the elders’ blessing.
    INTERACTION WITH OTHERS

    Because Cambodian Americans have settled most often in urban areas, they have frequent contact with disadvantaged members of other minority groups. Often these encounters are troubled by cultural misunderstandings and by the social problems frequently found in poor communities. In some areas where there are large Cambodian communities, Cambodian youth gangs have developed, in part as a matter of self-protection. Older Cambodians often see that they have much in common with their poor Asian, black, and Hispanic neighbors and will frequently distinguish these areas of “poor people” from the comfortable middle-class neighborhoods of “the Americans.” Most Cambodian Americans are fairly dark-skinned and they are acutely aware of prejudice in America. They sometimes internalize this prejudice and express feelings of inadequacy because of it.

    It has been noted that Cambodian Americans in Texas have frequent contacts with Mexicans or Mexican Americans, and that the members of the two ethnic groups accommodate one another easily. Cambodians may frequently be found as participants in Mexican American weekend markets. Many Cambodians in Texas have learned Spanish and follow Mexican customs in interacting with their Spanish-speaking peers.
    Religion

    Buddhism is the traditional religion of Cambodia. Before 1975, the ruler of the country was the official protector of the religion and the monks were organized into a hierarchy overseen by the government. Monasteries and temples were found in all villages, and monks played an important role in the education of children and in passing on Cambodian culture. The people also supported their local monasteries, through gifts and by giving food to monks. Monks were forbidden to handle money and had to show humility by begging for their food. Every morning, the monks would go from house to house, with their eyes downcast, holding out their begging bowls into which the lay people would spoon rice. Although the religion was attacked by the radical Khmer Rouge during their regime and many monks were killed, the vast majority of Cambodians remain Buddhists and the faith remains an important part of the national culture.

    Buddhism in India is divided into two schools of thought. The “Northern School,” known as Mahayana Buddhism, is found most often in China, Japan, Tibet, Korea, and Vietnam. The “Southern School,” called Theravada (or Hinayana) Buddhism, predominates in Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, and Sri Lanka. Theravada Buddhists stress the importance of becoming a monk and achieving Nirvana, a state in which there is no self or rebirth, through one’s own efforts. Mahayana Buddhists lay more emphasis on help from Bodhisattvas, enlightened beings who have delayed achieving Nirvana in order to help others become enlightened.

    Fundamental to the Buddhist doctrine are the Four Noble Truths: (1) Existence inevitably leads to unhappiness which follows from the impermanence and disintegration of all living elements; (2) Unhappiness is caused by desire inherent in human nature; desire causes man to become attached to the impermanent; (3) Unhappiness can be avoided by the crushing of desire; and (4) Desire can be crushed by strict adherence to a prescribed moral path. In Buddhism all worldly things are considered changing and impermanent. Those who are not aware of the impermanent nature of the world become attached to worldly things, and this leads to suffering. The suffering will continue as the soul goes through a cycle of rebirths, continually drawn back to worldly desires. Meditation and a moral, disciplined life can enable a believer to overcome desires. The soul that successfully overcomes all desires may reach Nirvana.

    The law of Karma ( Kam in the Cambodian language) controls life and rebirth. This law may be seen as a kind of spiritual accounting; good deeds, or “merit,” help the soul to be reborn in better circumstances and to earn rewards in the present life; bad deeds cause the soul to be reborn in worse circumstances and can bring about bad luck. For these reasons, “making merit” is a central part of religion for Cambodians. Cambodian Buddhists see making merit as more than simply piling up spiritual credits by performing good works. Correct behavior and merit-making activities such as attending religious ceremonies or donating money to temples and food to monks are seen as upholding the order of the universe. These beliefs have often led Cambodians to wonder if the sufferings of their people might be due to some collective fault of the nation.

    Some Cambodian Americans have converted to Christianity, either in the refugee camps, or after arriving in the United States. Often these conversions have been the result of spiritual crises brought about by the tragedies of recent Cambodian history. In many cases, people felt that Buddhism had somehow failed because of the death and destruction that had occurred in their country. In other cases, Christianity has seemed attractive because it is the religion of the majority of Americans, and conversion has seemed a good way to conform to American society and to express gratitude to the religious organizations that played an important part in resettling refugees in the United States.

    The majority of Cambodian Americans, however, continue the practice of their traditional religion. As more of them have settled in this country, and as they have established their own communities, observing their religious rituals has become easier. In 1979, there were only three Cambodian temples in the United States. By the early 1990s, more than 50 of these temples had been established in Cambodian communities throughout the United States. Even in those communities in which no temples exist, living around other Cambodian Americans has made it possible for Buddhists to observe their rites in private homes or in community halls and other meeting places. Monasteries, or places where Buddhist monks live, are usually attached to the temples, or places of worship, and the monks are in charge of the temples and the religious rituals held in them. Most American Buddhist temples are in houses or apartments, but there are some more traditionally styled temples, such as the large temple-monastery complex in Maryland.
    Employment and Economic Traditions

    Adapting to the American economy has been difficult for many people of Cambodian ancestry in the United States. Most of them were farmers in their previous country, and in the United States they have generally been settled in cities. They have high rates of unemployment and the jobs found by
    Angelina Melendez is learning the parts of the body from a chart written in the Cambodian language of Khmer. Angelina attends the Demonstration School, which was developed to meet the educational needs of students who speak English as a second language.
    Angelina Melendez is learning the parts of the body from a chart written in the Cambodian language of Khmer. Angelina attends the Demonstration School, which was developed to meet the educational needs of students who speak English as a second language.
    first-generation Cambodian Americans are most often low-paying jobs in service and manual labor occupations.

    Cambodian Americans are, for the most part, a poor group. According to the 1990 U.S. Census, 42 percent of the families of Cambodian ethnicity were living below the poverty level and 51 percent of all Cambodian households rely on public assistance income. The median household income of Cambodian Americans in 1990 was only $18,837, compared to $30,056 for Americans in general. Cambodian Americans have a high rate of unemployment: About ten percent of those in the labor force in 1990 were unemployed. This high rate of unemployment is largely a result of having arrived in this country so recently. If rates of unemployment are examined by years of arrival, it is clear that the longer Cambodian Americans have been in the United States, the higher the probability they will be employed. Nearly 17 percent of Cambodians in the labor force who arrived in the United States between 1987 and 1990 were unemployed in 1990. Among those who arrived in 1985 or 1986, though, only about 12 percent were unemployed. Among Cambodians who arrived between 1982 and 1984, the percentage of unemployed in the labor force dropped to 11 percent. Only about nine percent of those who arrived in 1980 and 1981 and only about seven percent of those who arrived before 1980 were unemployed. These figures provide evidence for a trait noticed by many familiar with Cambodians in the United States: their eagerness to find work, even low-paying work, as soon as they have acquired sufficient language skills and familiarity with American society.

    Lack of formal education is a serious handicap for Cambodian Americans. Census statistics show that about 53 percent of Cambodian American men have a sixth grade education or less and 90 percent have less than 12 years of schooling. Women are faced with even more serious difficulties, since 66 percent of them have sixth grade educations or less and 95 percent have completed less than 12 years of schooling. Even when Cambodian Americans are from highly educated backgrounds, however, they often find that their educations are not relevant to the American workplace, and they are handicapped by their language skills. Author Someth May, for example, worked before the publication of his book as a janitor, despite his elite background in his home country. Regardless of the limited educations of their parents, however, Cambodian American young people often do quite well in school and show themselves dedicated to acquiring more education. Only about six percent of Cambodian Americans between the ages of 16 and 19 are high-school dropouts, compared to about ten percent of white Americans and about 14 percent of African Americans in the same age group.
    Politics and Government

    Most Cambodian Americans are concerned with questions of survival in the new country. They are not actively involved in U.S. politics but remain keenly interested in the reconstruction of their native country. Some Cambodian American organizations, such as the Cambodian Network Council, contribute to the rebuilding of Cambodia by sending trained Cambodian Americans and others to Cambodia as volunteers.
    Individual and Group Contributions

    Im Proum is a prominent linguist who taught at Cornell University. There he coauthored several of the standard texts on the Cambodian language with Dr. Franklin Huffmann. Sam Ang-Sam is a scholar, musician, and activist. He studied music at the University of Fine Arts in Phnom Penh and afterward continued his studies in the United States, where he received a Ph.D. in ethnomusicology from Wesleyan University. He served on the faculty at the University of Washington in Seattle until becoming director of the Cambodian Network Council in Washington, D.C. He travels around the world performing and teaching about Cambodian music. Chinary Ung is a scholar and musician who teaches about Cambodian culture at Arizona State University. As a musician, Dr. Ung specializes in playing the Cambodian xylophone.

    Maha Ghosananda is a Buddhist monk who lives in the United States but frequently travels to Cambodia. Founder and director of the Khmer Society of New England, he is one of the world’s most prominent peace activists and has organized two marches for peace in Cambodia. He has also been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize. Vora Kanthoul is an authority on contemporary Cambodian issues and an influential figure in the Cambodian American community. He is executive director of the United Cambodian Community and teaches comparative world cultures at Long Beach City College. He studied in France, Russia, and Taiwan, and earned a Cambodian law degree in Phnom Penh and a Master’s degree in political science from Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. From 1973 to 1975 he served in the Cambodian Foreign Service. In 1983 he served as minister and counselor of Cambodia’s permanent mission to the United Nations.

    Haing Ngor is among the most famous Cambodian Americans, best known for his Oscar-winning portrayal of the Cambodian interpreter and journalist Dith Pran in the film, The Killing Fields. Born in rural Cambodia, he worked his way through medical school and became an obstetrician and surgeon in Phnom Penh. After the Khmer Rouge takeover in 1975, his family was killed by their execution squads. He escaped to Thailand in 1979 and came to the United States in 1980. Aside from a successful acting career, he headed six organizations devoted to caring for Southeast Asian refugees and resettling them in the West. In 1996 he was murdered outside his home in Los Angeles, California.

    Dith Pran, the subject of the film The Killing Fields, worked as an assistant and interpreter for New York Times correspondent Sydney Schanberg in Cambodia. When Pran’s family escaped from Cambodia on the eve of the Khmer Rouge takeover in 1975, Pran stayed behind to help save Schanberg and other journalists from execution. While Western journalists were able to leave, Pran was trapped in Cambodia. In 1979 he escaped to Thailand, where he reunited with Sydney Schanberg. In the United States he has continued work as a photographer and journalist. His book of interviews with Khmer Rouge survivors entitled Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields: Memoirs by Survivors, was published in 1997.
    Media

    Angkor Borei News.

    Cambodian community newspaper in English.

    Contact: Mr. Diep Ly, Manager.

    Address: 2565 East Chapman Avenue, Suite F, Fullerton, California 92631.

    Telephone: (714) 773-5519.

    Read more: Cambodian Americans – History, Origins, Cambodia under the french http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Bu-Dr/Cambodian-Americans.html#ixzz1t3CEZah1

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